1 Samuel

The LORD gave Israel the law through Moses; He gave them prophets who spoke His word; He gave them judges to deliver them; but He did not give them a king. 

It was God’s desire that Israel would look to Him rather than a man, as ruler and king.  But the hearts of the people were wicked, and their desire to have a man rule them was prophesied by Moses even before the people ever officially asked for a king.

When you enter the land which the LORD your God gives you, and you possess it and live in it, and you say, ‘I will set a king over me like all the nations who are around me,’ you shall surely set a king over you whom the LORD your God chooses, one from among your countrymen you shall set as king over yourselves; you may not put a foreigner over yourselves who is not your countryman.  Deuteronomy 17: 14 – 15

These are condemning words from Moses, for it was not a good thing that Israel desired to be like “all the nations…” rather than be like God’s chosen nation.  This prophecy of Moses was fulfilled a few hundred years later, in the days of Samuel.

And it came about when Samuel was old that he appointed his sons judges over Israel.  Now the name of his firstborn was Joel, and the name of his second, Abijah; they were judging in Beersheba.  His sons, however, did not walk in his ways, but turned aside after dishonest gain and took bribes and perverted justice.  Then all the elders of Israel gathered together and came to Samuel at Ramah; and they said to him, “Behold, you have grown old, and your sons do not walk in your ways.  Now appoint a king for us to judge us like all the nations.”  But the thing was displeasing in the sight of Samuel when they said, “Give us a king to judge us.”  And Samuel prayed to the LORD.  The LORD said to Samuel, “Listen to the voice of the people in regard to all that they say to you, for they have not rejected you, but they have rejected Me from being king over them.  Like all the deeds they have done since the day that I brought them up from Egypt even to this day – in that they have forsaken Me and served other gods – so they are doing to you also.”  1 Samuel 8: 1 – 8

Perhaps understanding Israel’s wicked desire for a king in the days of Samuel makes the incarnation of King Jesus that much more profound.  For by the Son taking on human flesh, God fulfills both His desire to be thought of as king by His people and the desire of His people to be ruled by a man.  For Jesus Christ will reign over His kingdom forever and He will do so in human flesh. 

Paul preached a message once relating the days of Samuel and the appointing of kings to the eventual coming of Christ.

Now Paul and his companions put out to sea from Paphos and came to Perga in Pamphylia; but John left them and returned to Jerusalem.  But going on from Perga, they arrived at Pisidian Antioch, and on the Sabbath day they went into the synagogue and sat down.  After the reading of the Law and the Prophets the synagogue officials sent to them, saying, “Brethren, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, say it.”  Paul stood up, and motioning with his hand said, “Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen: The God of this people Israel chose our fathers and made the people great during their stay in the land of Egypt, and with an uplifted arm He led them out from it.  For a period of about forty years He put up with them in the wilderness.  When He had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, He distributed their land as an inheritance – all of which took about four hundred and fifty years.  After these things He gave them judges until Samuel the prophet.  Then they asked for a king, and God gave them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years.  After He had removed him, He raised up David to be their king, concerning whom He also testified and said, ‘I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after My heart, who will do all My will.’  From the descendants of this man, according to promise, God has brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus, after John had proclaimed before His coming a baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel…And we preach to you the good news of the promise made to the fathers, that God has fulfilled this promise to our children in that He raised up Jesus, as it is also written in the second Psalm, ‘You are My Son; today I have begotten You.’  As for the fact that He raised Him up from the dead, no longer to return to decay, He has spoken in this way: ‘I will give You the holy and sure blessings of David.’  Therefore He also says in another Psalm, ‘You will not allow Your Holy One to undergo decay.’  For David, after he had served the purpose of God in his own generation, fell asleep, and was laid among his fathers and underwent decay; but He whom God raised did not undergo decay.  Therefore let it be known to you, brethren, that through Him forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you, and through Him everyone who believes is freed from all things, from which you could not be freed through the Law of Moses.  Therefore take heed, so that the thing spoken of in the Prophets may not come upon you:  ‘Behold, you scoffers, and marvel, and perish; for I am accomplishing a work in your days, a work which you will never believe, though someone should describe it to you.’  Acts 13: 13 – 24, 32 – 40

And what is this work of King Jesus that the scoffers scoff at?  God in human flesh.  Crucifixion, death, burial, resurrection.  Forgiveness of sin, not by works, but by believing in the King.

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